The examples referred to in item 27 iii of the discussion paper are sufficient. These examples are actions related to the activation and deactivation of payment functionalities, the amendment of trusted beneficiaries (“white lists”) - or blocked beneficiaries (“black-lists”), the setting of limits or changing PSU data.
Examples of possession elements are already sufficiently described in the EBA guidelines on the security of internet payments under the definition of strong customer authentication (EBA/GL/2014/12, Title I – Scope and Definitions, item 12).
Basically, the possession element is supposed to have physical form. However, the ASPSP may decide based on its own risk assessment to accept data as a possession element.
Examples of a possession element being data are (a) software tokens, which are physically secured or (b) data securely combined with a physical element. In contrast, data stored in hardened applications" are considered as examples of a physical form. Hardening means that the application includes security mechanisms against malware attacks. Hardening ensures that these data can only be controlled by the PSU.
For any regulation on the usability of possession elements it has to be taken into account that strong competitive constraints exist within the financial sector. For this reason, it is important to establish a level playing field in Europe for all ASPSP and other participating parties. In addition, any regulation of this topic must not prohibit usable and convenient customer products."
Regarding this topic the term behaviour-based characteristics" is understood to mean biometric characteristics of the PSU. Behaviour-based characteristics are not understood to be the transaction flow behaviour of the PSU.
Behaviour-based characteristics are regarded as an appropriate "inherence" element if the method provides an appropriate security level.
GBIC suggests that ASPSPs should decide based on their own risk assessment whether to accept behaviour-based characteristics as a factor of strong customer authentication."
As already cited in point 18 of the rationales of the EBA DP, customer convenience is a major topic which has to be respected by any solutions given to customers. For example, customers expect to be able to order and to pay with the same device.
Independence of the authentication elements need NOT necessarily be achieved by physically separated devices. Logical channel separation may also be used to achieve the independence of the authentication elements. For mobile devices this can be achieved, for example, if the entry of the password and the generation of the transaction code are done by different apps which both exist on the same mobile device.
The ASPSP has to decide based on its own risk assessment which solutions are accepted to assure the independence of the authentication elements.
The following aspects concerning dynamic linking should be taken into account:
(a) Dynamic linking has to provide confirmation of the intention of the PSU to perform exactly the given transaction.
(b) The process of dynamic linking must be comprehensible and reliable for the PSU so that the PSU is able to identify/confirm the transaction data linked to the dynamic code.
(c) The dynamic linking solution must not restrict the convenience of the PSU.
(d) It is expected that all requirements concerning the strong customer authentication of the PSU must apply to all service providers to ensure a level playing field for all market participants.
As already stated in question 4 solutions based on a logical separation of the password entry and the generation of the transaction code by different apps on the same mobile device already fulfil both the objective of independence and dynamic linking.
Solutions based on a special device like a dynamic transaction code (TAN, Transaction Authentication Number) generator implemented as a separated device with a second element already fulfil both the objective of independence and dynamic linking.
The suggested clarification regarding the potential exemptions to strong customer authentication is useful. But it should not be taken as an exhaustive list.
Note on 42. B.: The establishment or amendment of an element of a white list requires strong customer authentication.
For the applicability of 42. D.: the detailed criteria should be defined by the ASPSP based on its own risk assessment.
Read-only access to account information could be offered by the ASPSP without strong customer authentication based on the risk assessment of the ASPSP and agreement between ASPSP and PSU.
The precise criteria to be considered by an ASPSP for the evaluation of the risk of transactions have to be decided by the ASPSP based on its own risk assessment.
The RTS should only – if at all – include examples of such criteria, but not a comprehensive list. Future innovations based on new criteria not known today must be possible.
The clarifications are useful but by no means exhaustive. There are technical solutions (e.g. OAuth , SAML , 3DSecure) to ensure that customers need not share the PSC with AIS/PIS providers.
Regarding 51. B.: It should be possible for the PSU to store its PSC within a mobile device which does not necessarily contain a secure element.
Regarding 51. E.: The habit of sharing PSCs increases the risk that a PSU may give its PSC to non-registered third parties or fraudsters.
The access and usage of the PSC by PIS and AIS providers must be clarified with regard to PSD II article 66 and 67. It must be ensured that the PSC is only accessible by the PSU and the issuer. For example, it should be clarified that PIS and AIS providers should not have more information about the PSC than the issuer itself (i.e. keys, passwords should not be visible to PIS or AIS since these are also not known by the issuer).
The introduction of third parties into the payment chain increases the risk situation for the affected banks and for the financial sector in general. Compromise of third-party systems and processes, fraudulent third-party provider and insider attacks at third parties are possible. By attacking a single PIS or AIS provider, the probability of attacks on accounts of many different ASPSP will increase substantially (risk of concentration).
Furthermore it has to be taken into account that if AIS and PIS providers do not respect the requirement that the PSC are only accessible to the issuer and the user, there is a potential risk that the PSC may be reused for other purposes not explicitly allowed in PSD II and requested by the PSU.
For the full life cycle of the PSC all processes should be performed by the ASPSP using secure processes.
There are no available alternatives for AIS/PIS providers. Any AIS/PIS solution should be certified and evaluated by third parties along the lines of existing GBIC and EMVCo approval processes. ASPSPs are already regulated and therefore alternatives to evaluation and certification like internal assessments exist.
If PSC are given to third parties (PIS-, AIS-providers), the transmission to the third party and the storage/usage by the third party will increase the risk to the confidentiality and integrity of the PSC.
If in future a PSU is allowed to enter its PSC on internet pages not belonging to the ASPSP, the risk will increase substantially that a PSU may also enter its PSC on fraudulent pages of a fraudulent provider. All efforts of the ASPSP to sensitize its customer to the need for secure handling of its PSC would be foiled.
The topics identified under paragraph 63 are suitable but not comprehensive.
(a) In addition to AIS and PIS providers, also a PIIS provider (payment instrument issuer provider) has to be considered.
(b) It is not sufficient to define minimum requirements. A precisely defined communication protocol needs to be standardized. Ideally, interoperability of interacting market participants is achieved through standardisation. Open standards are standards that can be developed jointly by all interested market participants. As there is no international account interface standard at present and EBA will merely define generic requirements, uniform EU-wide implementation cannot be ensured. Implementation of the technical requirements will ultimately be left to the market. As a result, there is a danger that both banks and third-party service providers will have to support several different standards, which immediately raises the question of interoperability. In a worst-case scenario, there could, however, be a large number of different interfaces if banks and third-party service providers offer proprietary solutions that meet EBA’s generic requirements. This would not be in the interests of either banks or third-party service providers.
(c) Access may be restricted or blocked by the ASPSP in the event of any abnormal access by frequency or volume (e.g. denial of service attacks).
(d) In case of a renewed request of an AIS the ASPSP should be able to limit the account information to the latest data which are not already delivered to the AIS.
(e) After the ASPSP has delivered the answer to a single request the ASPSP should be entitled to terminate the current access to the account.
The clarifications and requirements of the RTS must incorporate at least the following points:
(a) Relating to “Open and common Standard”: Only a single, non-ambiguous interface should exist for technical addressing of banks and communication purposes; this interface must be standardized throughout Europe, and must be applied in a uniform manner to any third-party services and application scenarios. The interface definition must take place in a transparent process carried out by the market participants involved. The standards must be usable by any participating provider free of charge and must be free of any rights of any other parties. It needs to be clarified that besides those standards other standards in the customer-to-business relationship may coexist as long as they fulfill the requirements of secure communication. The overall governance should be addressed in the forthcoming RTS. At a minimum, a body should be assigned the task of developing and maintaining the standards, and defining and monitoring the rights and responsibilities of all stakeholders. This independent body should be made up of multi-stakeholders, and be open and transparent.
(b) Relating to “PSP Identification”: A formal process must be established, by a neutral entity, for registering and licensing third-party services. This process must be transparent for all parties involved, setting out clearly-defined criteria as to which requirements must be fulfilled for registration or licensing. All registered and licensed third-party services must be listed in a central, uniform, European-wide register. Identification of third parties must be reliable enough to allow a liability shift to the third parties in the event of security incidents.
(c) Relating to “Secure communication”: The authentication of the AISP/PSPP has to be secure, i. e. using certificates which have to contain the roles of the PSPs. The communication interface between PIS/AIS-provider and ASPSP must be usable regardless of which mechanisms have been used for the authentication of the PSU.
(d) Relating to “minimal functional requirements”: Using parametrization should make the interface flexible and open for new scenarios. The interface must be designed in a manner that allows for version handling at a protocol level: this means that communications using different versions must be supported on the basis of clearly-defined version information within the protocol.
(e) Relating to “Security controls”: The authentication of the PSU by AIS/PIS providers should be based on the authentication provided by the ASPSP using PSC issued by the ASPSP.
(f) Relating to “technical requirements”: The interface should be based on commonly-used internet standards (such as XML, XML Schema, XML Signature, Web Services, TLS, JSON or REST-API). The interface protocol must provide for transparent error handling and flow control for large-sized messages. Data formats should be based on existing ISO messages (pain, pacs, camt).
(g) The authentication of AIS/PIS/PIIS providers and ASPSP could be based on qualified electronic seals as defined by eIDAS. See also 4.5. This is of course only valid for the communication between AIS/PIS providers and ASPSP. The communication with the PSU is not in the scope of this requirement.
(h) The authentication of a PSU by AIS/PIS providers should rely on the authentication of the PSU by the ASPSP without the necessity to store or access PSC of the PSU by the AIS/PIS provider. Solutions based on open and common standards already exist.
No, standards that comprehensively fulfil the above mentioned requirements in our view do not exist today. If the development of a new common and open standard is intended, the interface should be based on commonly used internet standards (such as XML, XML Schema, XML Signature, Web Services, TLS, JSON or REST-API).
Electronic seals in accordance with eIDAS could be used for the identification and authentication of AIS/PIS/PIIS providers and ASPSP (Clarification: Electronic seals in accordance with eIDAS cannot be used for authorization).
For the authentication of the PSU, a protocol in accordance with an open and common international industry standard such as OAuth, SAML or 3D-Secure could be used.
The following aspects concerning designing and maintaining the common and open standard should be taken into account:
(a) The specific security and/or strong customer authentication must be transparent for the interface, i.e. the interface format specification should not force the interface user to apply certain types of authentication.
(b) Security procedures must be described in a sufficiently abstract and encapsulated manner. The procedures must be referenced through unique identifiers (or profiles). The communication partners (AISP/PISP/ASPSP) have to use these identifiers to uniquely identify the security procedures (padding, hash procedure, type of signature) and processes for both partners.
(c) Interface specification must be sufficiently strict to prevent ambiguity or individual interpretation. Technical parameters and protocols must be sufficiently unique to allow a third party provider (AIS/PIS/PIIS provider) to establish a connection to an ASPSP.
(d) The interface must be designed in a manner that allows the handling of different versions. Communication using different versions of the interface must be supported on the basis of clearly defined version information within the protocol. Access to all standardized and approved versions must be supported.
(e) Only PSC issued by an ASPSP and authentication procedures of the ASPSP should be used for strong customer authentication. The ASPSP liability for unauthorized payment transactions (article 73) means the ASPSP must be responsible for the PSC and authentication procedures to be used for strong customer authentication.
No, e-IDAS cannot be considered as a possible solution for facilitating the strong customer authentication. A clear distinction has to be made between the different topics strong customer authentication", "protection of the confidentiality and integrity of the PSC" and "secure communication between participating service provider (AISP/PISP/ASPSP)".
Strong customer authentication: The electronic identification mechanisms/schemes regulated by e-IDAS are not useful for achieving strong customer authentication within payment services or account information services. As proven by some analysis in Germany, the effort and investment required for the integration in banking services is very high without any commensurate benefit. From the point of view of the PSU, the usage is not very convenient. These identification mechanisms/schemes are not open. In general it is not possible, for example, to enhance this authentication by elements which are dynamically linked to transaction data. Strong customer authentication based on "qualified trust services" like electronic signatures is possible. The decision to support/accept electronic signatures should be made only by the ASPSP based on its risk management and its business requirements. Therefore the usage of electronic signatures for strong customer authentication should not be regulated by the RTS to be prepared by EBA.
Protection of the confidentiality and integrity of the PSC: The e-IDAS regulation does not (to the best of our knowledge) contain any solution for the protection of the confidentiality of the personalised security credentials of a PSU. Only high-level requirements exist, but these do not give more details than the corresponding requirements of the PSD II."
A clear distinction has to be made between the different topics protection of the confidentiality and integrity of the PSC" and "secure communication between participating service provider (AISP/PISP/ASPSP)".
Protection of the confidentiality and integrity of the PSC: The e-IDAS regulation does not (to the best of our knowledge) contain any solution for the protection of the confidentiality of the personalised security credentials of a PSU. Only high-level requirements exist, but these do not give more details than the corresponding requirements of the PSD II. Therefore the usage of qualified trust services under e-IDAS regulation cannot be used to address the risks related to the confidentiality and integrity of PSCs.
Secure communication between participating service provider (AIS/PIS/ASPSP): In order to establish secure communication between an AIS/PIS provider and an ASPSP, the communication partners have to be authenticated securely by each other. As part of this authentication it has to be proven that the AIS/PIS provider has been registered/approved by EBA and that this registration/approval is still valid. In addition, the status of the provider has to be proven, i.e. whether it is an AIS provider or a PIS provider (since the services an ASPSP has to provide to a provider depend on its status). The authentication of PIS/AIS providers and ASPSP could be based on electronic seals based on qualified certificates issued by qualified trust service providers under e-IDAS regulation. For this EBA should define a policy to be implemented by the qualified trust service provider. Compliance with this policy should assure at least that (1) only PIS/AIS providers registered/approved by EBA will get a corresponding certificate, (2) a parameter contained within the certificate states the role of the certificate owner (i.e. AIS provider or PIS provider or ASPSP), (3) if the registration/approval of a PIS/AIS provider is withdrawn by EBA (or a national supervisory authority) the certificate is cancelled by EBA (or a national supervisory authority) immediately (i.e. in addition to the certificate owner also EBA (or a national supervisory authority) has got the right to cancel a certificate).
For all other services the use of qualified trust services under the e-IDAS regulation should be optional and therefore not regulated by the RTS to be prepared by EBA."
Joint committee operated by the central associations of the German banking industry. These associations are the Bundesverband der Deutschen Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken (BVR), for the cooperative banks, the Bundesverband deutscher Banken (BdB), for the private commercial banks, the Bundesverband Öffentlicher Banken Deutschlands (VÖB), for the public sector banks, the Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband (DSGV), for the savings banks finance group, and the Verband deutscher Pfandbriefbanken (vdp), for the Pfandbrief banks. Collectively they represent more than 2200 banks.
Joint committee operated by the central associations of the German banking industry